Simple Present exercícios

Carla Muniz

O Simple Present (presente simples) é um dos verbos mais utilizados em inglês e corresponde ao presente do indicativo em português.

Também chamado de Present Simple, esse tempo verbal é utilizado para indicar ações habituais que ocorrem no presente.

O Present Simple também é usado para fazer referências a verdades universais, sentimentos, desejos, opiniões e preferências.

O Toda Matéria separou uma série de exercícios de provas anteriores para ajudar você a exercitar os seus conhecimentos.

Prepare-se para começar a praticar!

cérebro ligado GIF

Questões comentadas

1. (SEDUC-CE – 2013)

texto seduc 2013 inglês

If the clause “she was the luckiest woman alive” (ℓ.2) had been used in the simple present tense, the verbal form “was” should be replaced by

a) am
b) are
c) has
d) were
e) is

Alternativa correta: e) is.

“Was” é a flexão de Simple Past do verbo “to be”, usada com a terceira pessoa do singular (he/she/it).

“Is” é a flexão de Simple Present do verbo “to be” usada com a terceira pessoa do singular.

“Was” é o passado de “is”.

2. (UECE/2004)

THE TREE MASSACRE

by Alex Shoumatoff

The paper industry is destroying11 one of America’s last great stands of native forest25 to bring you fresh shopping12 bags and toilet paper.

If there were an international tribunal that prosecuted9 crimes against the planet, like the one in The Hague that deals23 with crimes against humanity, what is happening22 on the Cumberland Plateau in eastern Tennessee would undoubtedly be indictable.

The crime — one of many clandestine ecocides American corporations are committing1 around the world — has taken2 place28 over three decades. About 200,000 acres on this tableland have already been clear-cut30 by the paper industry, and the cutting13 continues3. Where once grew10 some of the most biologically rich hardwood forest in North America’s Temperate Zone (which extends4 from the Gulf of Mexico to southern Canada), there are now row after row of fast-growing loblolly pine trees genetically engineered to yield the most pulp in the shortest time. But the paper industry’s insatiable appetite26 for timber has met5 with unexpected competition from an equally voracious insect. In the last four years, an estimated 50 to 70 percent of the pines planted6 on the plateau have been devoured31 by the southern pine beetle. The entire South has been ravaged32 by the worst outbreak in its history of this native predator of pine trees, caused by the tremendous increase in the amount of pine available for it to eat on the industry plantations that have replaced20 the native forest. Unable to salvage its dead timber, the paper industry has been losing17hundreds of millions of dollars. Yet it seems7 still committed to destroying16 what remains24 of the extraordinarily lush forest on the Cumberland Plateau, which, along with eastern Tennessee’s Great Valley and the Cumberland Mountains, has the highest concentration of endangered species in North America. The loss of biodiversity is tragic but also absurd economically; it doesn’t even make good business sense.

Not many people are aware of what is taking14place33. Nearly 90 percent of the Cumberland Plateau is in private hands and exempt from all but a few government regulations18. The federal and state agencies that are supposed to be regulating the paper, timber, and mining15 industries are populated with34 these companies’ former executives and have come29 to view these industries as clients whose permits and projects should be facilitated35 rather than scrutinized. But a quarter of the world’s paper27 and 60 percent of America’s wood products are being19 produced36 in the South, and the will to address the abuses of the paper industry, which contributes8 millions of dollars to the campaign coffers of politicians around the country, just isn’t there — certainly not in Tennessee.

There’s another reason for the lack of public awareness: Much of the devastation is hidden from view by thin “beauty strips” of native forest left along the plateau’s highways. The only way to get the full picture is to go up in a small plane and see it from the air.

VOCABULÁRIO

loblolly pine – espécie de pinheiro
beetle – besouro, inseto
timber – madeira
to ravage – devastar

Assinale a opção cujos verbos estão no simple present:

a) are committing (ref.1), has taken (ref.2), continues (ref.3)
b) extends (ref.4), has met (ref.5), planted (ref.6)
c) continues (ref.3), seems (ref.7), contributes (ref.8)
d) prosecuted (ref.9), contributes (ref.8), grew (ref.10)

Alternativa correta: c) continues (ref.3), seems (ref.7), contributes (ref.8)

Os três verbos da alternativa c) estão conjugados na terceira pessoa do singular (he/she/it). “Continues” é uma flexão do verbo “to continue” (continuar), “seems” é uma flexão do verbo “to seem” (parecer) e “contributes” é uma flexão do verbo “to contribute” (contribuir).

Para formar as flexões de terceira pessoa do singular (he/she/it) no Simple Present, temos como regra geral o acréscimo de –s na forma infinitiva do verbo, sem o “to”. (Exemplo: to seem > seems).

Dependendo da terminação do verbo, pode ser necessário acrescentar ou retirar mais letras. (Exemplo: to worry > worries).

Para todas as outras pessoas (I, you, we e they), a flexão no Simple Present corresponde ao verbo no infinitivo sem o “to”. (Exemplos: to continue > continue; to contribute > contribute.)

Veja em que tempo verbal estão as flexões das outras alternativas:

a) are committing (ref.1), has taken (ref.2), continues (ref.3):

- are commiting: Present Continuous
- has taken: Present Perfect
- continues: Simple Present

b) extends (ref.4), has met (ref.5), planted (ref.6)

- extends: Simple Present
- has met: Present Perfect
- planted: Simple Past

d) prosecuted (ref.9), contributes (ref.8), grew (ref.10)

- prosecuted: Simple Past
- contributes: Simple Present
- grew: Simple Past

Para saber mais sobre os verbos em inglês, veja também:

3. (UNIFOR-CE/2001)

In the age-old battle between independence-seeking teenagers and worried parents, the older generation is packing some new weapons. Caller ID tells parents who is calling their kids. Cell-phone bills detail every local number the kid has called. New computer programs track just about everything − every Web site visited, every e-mail sent − that a teenager does online.

Parental reconnaissance is going to get worse − or good, depending on your perspective.

(Wall Street Journal, Nov. 6, 2000)

Os verbos que estão no Simple Present, no texto, são

a) worried – has called – does
b) detail – track – get
c) worried – visited – sent
d) is packing – is calling – is going
e) tells – detail – track

Alternativa correta: e) tells – detail – track

“Tells” é uma flexão do verbo “to tell” (dizer), “detail” é uma flexão do verbo “to detail” (detalhar) e “track” é uma flexão do verbo “to track” (rastrear).

Para formar as flexões de terceira pessoa do singular (he/she/it) no Simple Present, temos como regra geral o acréscimo de –s na forma infinitiva do verbo, sem o “to”. (Exemplo: to tell >tells).

Dependendo da terminação do verbo, pode ser necessário acrescentar ou retirar mais letras. (Exemplo: to study > studies).

Para todas as outras pessoas (I, you, we e they), a flexão no Simple Present corresponde ao verbo no infinitivo sem o “to”. (Exemplos: to tell > tell; to study > study.)

Veja em que tempo verbal estão as flexões das outras alternativas:

a) worried – has called – does

- worried: Simple Past
- has called: Present Perfect
- does: Simple Present

b) detail – track – get

- detail: Simple Present
- track: Simple Present
- get: No texto, o verbo “get” faz parte de uma estrutura que está no Simple Future: is going to get worse

c) worried – visited – sent

Todas as flexões dessa alternativa estão conjugadas no Simple Past.

d) is packing – is calling – is going

Todas as flexões dessa alternativa estão conjugadas no Present Continuous

Para compreender melhor a explicação sobre o gabarito, veja também:

4. (UNCISAL/2015)

Minister Norman Baker wants end to UK animal tests

By Brian Wheeler

Political reporter

The minister in charge of regulating animal experiments in the UK has said he wants to see an end to all testing.

[…]

Disponível em: www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-28580792

Ao seguir a regra gramatical de conjugação de verbos, de acordo com o exemplo da manchete da reportagem acima, a frase “She ________ her dignity at any price” será completada da seguinte forma com o verbo “to pursue”.

a) pursued.
b) pursuing.
c) pursuyed.
d) pursues.
e) pursue.

Alternativa correta: d) pursues.

Observe o exemplo da manchete: Minister Norman Baker wants end to UK animal tests

O verbo da frase é o verbo “to want” (querer) e está conjugado na terceira pessoa do singular (he/she/it) do Simple Present.

Para formar as flexões de terceira pessoa do singular (he/she/it) no Simple Present, temos como regra geral o acréscimo de –s na forma infinitiva do verbo, sem o “to”. (Exemplo: to want >wants).

Dependendo da terminação do verbo, pode ser necessário acrescentar ou retirar mais letras. (Exemplo: to party > parties).

Para todas as outras pessoas (I, you, we e they), a flexão no Simple Present corresponde ao verbo no infinitivo sem o “to”. (Exemplos: to want > want; to party > party.)

Tendo em conta o enunciado do exercício (seguir a regra gramatical de conjugação de verbos, de acordo com o exemplo da manchete), devemos preencher a lacuna optando por um verbo também no Simple Present, conjugado na terceira pessoa através do acréscimo do “-s”.

Assim sendo, a alternativa correta é a letra d) pursues.

“Pursues” é a flexão de terceira pessoa do singular (he/she/it) do verbo “to pursue”.

She pursues her dignity at any price = Ela mantém a dignidade dela a qualquer preço.

5. Complete the sentences with the correct auxiliary:

She ____________ go to school on Saturdays. She only ________________ on weekdays. And you? ___________ you study on weekends?

a) is/studying/Do
b) doesn’t/studies/Do
c) don’t/studies/Does
d) doesn’t/study/Do

Alternativa correta: b) doesn’t/studies/Do

“On Saturdays” indica que a frase faz referência a uma situação habitual no presente. Logo, deve-se usar o Simple Present.

Para fazermos frases na negativa no Simple Present, devemos usar “do” ou does” + “not”. Também podemos recorrer à forma contraída de cada um deles: “don’t” e “doesn’t”.

“Does” é usado com he/she/it e “do” é usado com os demais pronomes pessoais (I, you, we e they).

Até aqui, apenas as alternativas b) e d) estão corretas.

A segunda lacuna a ser preenchida indica a ação executada pelo sujeito.

Como o sujeito é o pronome pessoal “she” (ela), a flexão deve ser formada com o acréscimo de –s ao verbo no infinitivo sem o “to”.

Observe que o verbo indicado nas alternativas de resposta é o verbo “to study” (estudar).

“To study” é um verbo irregular que termina em “y” precedido de consoante. Nesse caso, deve-se eliminar o “y” e acrescentar “-ies”, ou seja, “to study” passa a “studies”.

Com isso, avançamos com a opção b) já sabendo que ela é a resposta correta do exercício.

A última lacuna inicia uma pergunta.

Veja que a locução “on weekends” (aos fins de semana) dá a ideia de hábito no presente. Por esse motivo, o tempo verbal a ser utilizado é o Simple Present.

Para fazermos frases na interrogativa no Simple Present, devemos usar “do” ou does”.

“Does” é usado com he/she/it e “do” é usado com os demais pronomes pessoais (I, you, we e they).

Como o pronome da frase é “you” (você), o auxiliar a ser utilizado deve ser o “Do”.

6. (FUNCAB/2014-adaptada)

Read the text below and answer the question that follows:

Text 2:

English for Adults & Seniors!

Learning a language isn’t only for the young! It’s for everyone and if you are an older learner,maybe 40+ to 70+ then joining an English Language Course in an environment with people in similar age groups is a greatway to do it.

When you join a course at one of the International Schools you will find that approximately more than 20% of our students are aged 30 to 44 and a further 32% are aged 45 to 75 - sometimes older. You aremore than likely to find yourself in a class with people of a similar age;

Some mature students choose Business English courses for their working needs but many more join standard General English courses or the Intensive English Mini-Group courses. Courses like these help you to combine your language course with a holiday and you can make your own afternoon programme or join social programmes which are designed to have a variety of different activities suitable for all the age groups at the school. The programme changes every week and you can see samples of all the different activities on the social programme pages or on Facebook pages.

Mature learners will feel safe joining one of the International Schools. You will find others of a similar age in your class at all times of year

The International School ( I S ) accommodation is also suitable for older clients - you can choose froma homestay with a private bathroom, an apartment, but most convenient of all is Club IS Hotel which is opposite the school. Club IS is for mature individuals who are studying at the school. Classes are always organised according to level and according to age groups.

(Adapted from: http: www.tisenglish.co.uk /courses-for-adults- seniors)

Read these sentences;

1. Older learners _______ want to learn Spanish. They want to learn English.
2. The programme ______ change everyweek.
3. How often ______ you have business English classes?
The correct auxiliaries that complete the sentences above are:

a) do/do/do.
b) does / does / does.
c) don’t / doesn’t / do.
d) don’t / don’t / do.
e) doesn’t / doesn’t / does.

Alternativa correta: c) don’t/doesn’t/do.

Na frase de número 1, as duas orações apresentam ideias diferentes:

“Older learners _______ want to learn Spanish. They want to learn English.” (Os alunos mais velhos _________ querem aprender espanhol. Eles querem aprender inglês.)

Pelo conteúdo, já podemos identificar que a lacuna deve ser preenchida com uma forma negativa.

A frase está no Simple Present e o sujeito é “learners” (alunos), que equivale ao pronome pessoas “they” (eles).

Para fazermos frases na negativa no Simple Present, devemos usar “do” ou does” + “not”. Também podemos recorrer à forma contraída de cada um deles: “don’t” e “doesn’t”.

“Does” é usado com he/she/it e “do” é usado com os demais pronomes pessoais (I, you, we e they).

A frase correta é: “Older learners don’t want to learn Spanish. They want to learn English.” (Os alunos mais velhos não querem aprender espanhol. Eles querem aprender inglês.)

Até aqui, apenas as alternativas c) e d) estão corretas.

Na frase de número 2, “The programme ______ change every week.”, observe que a palavra “programme” (programa) corresponde ao pronome pessoal “it” (usado para coisas e objetos).

Lembre-se que apenas as alternativas c) e d) ainda estão na jogada. As demais alternativas já foram invalidadas na resolução da frase 1.

Como “doesn’t” é usado para “he/she/it” e “don’t” para os demais pronomes (I, you, we e they), a alternativa c) é a escolhida como correta.

Aqui, já sabemos que a letra c) é a resposta do exercício. No entanto, veja a análise da frase 3:

“How often ______ you have business English classes?” (Com que frequência você tem aulas de inglês comercial?) é uma pergunta no Simple Present.

Para fazermos frases na interrogativa no Simple Present, devemos usar “do” ou does”.

“Does” é usado com he/she/it e “do” é usado com os demais pronomes pessoais (I, you, we e they). “Assim, a frase final é “How often do you have business English classes.”

7. (FUNCAB/2014)

WELCOME!

And congratulations on your new purchase. You’re now entitled to an unsurpassed service and a number of benefits as part of the Ericsson warranty and service program. Your Ericsson mobile phone was designed to offer you the ultimate in quality, convenience and performance. And of course, we guarantee it. From now on, as the new owner of an Ericsson mobile phone, you’ll have access to a number of exclusive advantages such as: a vast network of Ericsson service centers; a limited 1 year warranty and service agreement, and a toll-free customer service hotline.

WARRANTY CONDITIONS

Dear Customer,

If your Ericsson product needs warranty service, you should send the product to any company authorized service facility. For information contact the store from which you purchased the product. The product in all cases must be accompanied by the following items: your name, address, telephone number, warranty card, bill of sale bearing the serial number, date of delivery, or reasonable proof of these dates, and a detailed description of the problem.

Our warranty

This warranty is extended by Ericsson Inc. (“The Company”) to the original purchaser for use only. Ericsson warrants this product to be free of defects in material and workmanship at the time of its original purchase and for the subsequent period of one (1) year. All accessories for the product are covered for a period of one (1) year fromthe date of purchase.

What we will do

If, during the period of warranty, this product proves defective under normal use and service due to improper materials or workmanship, the company will repair or replace the defective item with a new or factory rebuilt replacement.

(Taken from Ericsson - One year Warranty and Service Agreement)

Read the following sentences:

1. Ericsson mobile phone __________ you the ultimate in quality.
2. Ericsson __________ the product to be free of defects.
3. If you need more information, you should __________ the store from which you purchased the product.

The verbs that complete the sentences above correctly are, respectively:

a) offer/warrant /contact
b) offers/warrants/contacts
c) offer/warranty/contacts
d) offers/warrants/contact
e) offer/warranty/contact

Alternativa correta: d) offers/warrants/contact

Na frase 1, “Ericsson mobile phone __________ you the ultimate in quality.

O sujeito da frase é “Ericsson mobile phone” (O celular da Ericsson). Como se trata de um objeto, o pronome pessoal correspondente é “it”.

Lembre-se que para formar as flexões de terceira pessoa do singular (he/she/it) no Simple Present, temos como regra geral o acréscimo de –s na forma infinitiva do verbo, sem o “to”. (Exemplo: to offer > offers).

Dependendo da terminação do verbo, pode ser necessário acrescentar ou retirar mais letras. (Exemplo: to worry > worries).

Para todas as outras pessoas (I, you, we e they), a flexão no Simple Present corresponde ao verbo no infinitivo sem o “to”. (Exemplo: to contact > contact)

Assim sendo, a forma correta para preencher a frase é “offers” (oferece).

“Ericsson mobile phone offers you the ultimate in quality.” (O celular da Ericsson oferece a você o melhor em qualidade.)

Até aqui, apenas as alternativas b) e d) são válidas pois são as duas onde “offers” é a opção de resposta da frase 1.

Na frase 2, “Ericsson __________ the product to be free of defects.”, o sujeito é a marca Ericsson. Mais uma vez o pronome pessoal correspondente é “it” e por esse motivo, devemos utilizar um verbo flexionado na terceira pessoa do singular (he/she/it).

Como regra geral, a flexão de 3ª pessoa do singular do Simple Present é formada através do acréscimo de –s ao infinitivo do verbo sem o “to”.

Assim sendo, a forma correta para preencher a frase é “warrants” (garante):

Ericsson warrants the product to be free of defects. (A Ericsson garante que o produto não tem defeitos.)

Já na frase 3, “If you need more information, you should __________ the store from which you purchased the product.”, repare que foi utilizado o verbo modal “should” (deve; deveria).

Após “should”, usa-se um verbo no infinitivo sem o “to”.

Dentre as alternativas que ainda estão na jogada, apenas a letra d) apresenta a forma correta (contact). A alternativa b) apresenta o verbo “to contact” (entrar em contato) flexionado na terceira pessoa do singular do Simple Present.

Assim sendo, a forma correta para preencher a frase é “contact” (entrar em contato):

If you need more information, you should contact the store from which you purchased the product. (Se precisar de mais informações, você deve entrar em contato com a loja onde adquiriu o produto.)

Concluímos, assim, que a alternativa d) é a resposta do exercício.

8. (AOCP/2012)

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By Justin Phelps, PCWorld

No extrato de sentença seguinte: “…but it still shines with its adware-free installation, ability to download multiple videos simultaneously, and automatic conversion feature.”, há um verbo explicitamente marcado no Presente Simples, na 3ª pessoa do singular. Assinale qual o verbo que carrega essa característica.

a) Shines.
b) Installation.
c) Download.
d) Simultaneously.
e) Conversion.

Alternativa correta: a) Shines.

“Shines” é a flexão de terceira pessoa do singular do verbo “to shine” (brilhar).

Como regra geral, formamos as flexões de terceira pessoa do singular (he/she/it) no Simple Present acrescentando –s na forma infinitiva do verbo, sem o “to”. (Exemplo: to shine > shines).

Dependendo da terminação do verbo, pode ser necessário acrescentar ou retirar mais letras. (Exemplo: to try > tries).

Para todas as outras pessoas (I, you, we e they), a flexão no Simple Present corresponde ao verbo no infinitivo sem o “to”. (Exemplo: to download > download)

9. (CETRO/2015)

Read the text below.

What is hunger?

Acute hunger or starvation are often highlighted on TV screens: hungry mothers too weak to breastfeed their children in drought-hit Ethiopia, refugees in war-torn Syria queuing for food rations, helicopters airlifting high energy biscuits to earthquake victims in Haiti or Pakistan.

These situations are the result of high profile crises like war or natural disasters, which starve a population of food. Yet emergencies account for less than eight percent of hunger's victims.

Daily undernourishment is a less visible form of hunger – but it affects many more people, from the shanty towns of Jakarta in Indonesia and the Cambodian capital Phnom Penh to the mountain villages of Bolivia and Nepal. In these places, hunger is much more than an empty stomach.

For weeks, even months, its victims must live on significantly less than the recommended 2,100 kilocalories that the average person needs to lead a healthy life.

The body compensates for the lack of energy by slowing down its physical and mental activities. A hungry mind cannot concentrate, a hungry body does not take initiative, a hungry child loses all desire to play and study.

Hunger also weakens the immune system. Deprived of the right nutrition, hungry children are especially vulnerable and become too weak to fight off disease and may die from common infections like measles and diarrhea. Each year, almost 7 million children die before reaching the age of five; malnutrition is a key factor in over a third of these deaths

(Source: Levels and Trends in Child Mortality, IGME, 2012 in http://www.wfp.org).

Choose the alternative that presents the interrogative form of the sentence below.

“[_] it affects many more people from the shanty towns [_]”.

a) Does it affect many more people from the shanty towns?
b) Is it affect many more people from the shanty towns?
c) Has they affect many more people from the shanty towns?
d) Are they affect many more people from the shanty towns?
e) Do they affect many more people from the shanty towns?

Alternativa correta: a) Does it affect many more people from the shanty towns?

Observe que a frase original está no Simple Present. “Affects” é a flexão de terceira pessoa do singular (he/she/it) do verbo “to affect” (afetar).

Para fazermos frases na interrogativa no Simple Present, devemos usar “do” ou does”.

“Does” é usado com he/she/it e “do” é usado com os demais pronomes pessoais (I, you, we e they).

É importante referir que, em frases interrogativas no Simple Present, ou seja, quando usamos “do” ou “does” para fazer uma pergunta, o verbo principal deve ser utilizado no infinitivo sem o “to”.

Na frase mencionada, o verbo é “affects”. Sendo assim, para elaborarmos a pergunta basta passar o verbo para o infinitivo (to affect) e retirar o “to” (affect).

Como o sujeito da frase é “it”, o auxiliar a ser utilizado é o “does”.

10. (COSEAC/2009)

texto coseac 2009 inglês

Robots ____ have the brains to "intelligently and autonomously search ____ objects" _____ their own.

a) didn't/for/in;
b) don't/of/in;
c) haven't/for/on;
d) don't/for/on;
e) doesn't/for/on.

Alternativa correta: d) don't/for/on

Observe que o sujeito da frase é “robots” (robôs).

Ao lermos a frase na sua totalidade, podemos ver que ela está no Simple Present:

“Robots ____ have the brains to "intelligently and autonomously search ____ objects" _____ their own.” (Os robôs ___________ têm inteligência para “procurar objetos de forma inteligente e autônoma por conta própria.)

“Robots” equivale ao pronome pessoal “they” (eles) e por isso devemos usar a forma “don’t”.

“Search for” é um phrasal verb que significa “procurar”.

“On their own” é uma expressão que em inglês significa “por conta própria”.

Veja também:

Resumo do Simple Present

Confira o infográfico abaixo e aprenda de uma vez por todas as regras de uso do Simple Present.

infográfico simple present

Carla Muniz
Carla Muniz
Professora, lexicógrafa, tradutora, produtora de conteúdos e revisora. Licenciada em Letras (Português, Inglês e Literaturas) pelas Faculdades Integradas Simonsen, em 2002.