Os pronomes demonstrativos em inglês (demonstrative pronouns) são utilizados para indicar algo (pessoa, lugar ou objeto) e mostrar sua posição no espaço.
Isso porque alguns deles são utilizados quando o falante está perto, e outros, quando está longe.
Diferente do português, os pronomes demonstrativos não variam em gênero. Ou seja, a mesma palavra é usada no feminino e no masculino. No entanto, há variação de número (singular e plural)
|This (singular)||este, esta, isto|
|These (plural)||estes, estas|
|That (singular)||esse, essa, isso, aquele, aquela, aquilo|
|Those (plural)||esses, essas, aqueles, aquelas|
Pay Attention! (Atenção)
This e that é usado no singular. O primeiro é empregado quando o falante está perto do objeto ou do sujeito. Já o segundo, quando o falante está longe.
O these é a forma do plural do this. O those, por sua vez, é a forma do plural do that. Portanto, da mesma forma que os pronomes no singular, o these é utilizado para indicar proximidade; e o those, indica que a pessoa está afastada daquilo que está mostrando.
- This is my pen. (Esta é minha caneta)
- – Are these your books? (Estes são os seus livros?)
- I love that guy. (Eu adoro aquele garoto)
- – Those are my keys. (Aquelas são as minhas chaves.)
A expressão this is também é usada para apresentar alguém ou falar ao telefone, por exemplo:
- This is my girlfriend Natasha (Esta é a minha namorada Natasha)
- Hello, this is John. (Olá, aqui é o John).
Os pronomes demonstrativos em inglês são classificados de duas maneiras:
Demonstrative Pronouns (pronomes substantivos): tem a função de substituir o substantivo na frase. Ele surge antes do verbo ou sozinho na frase e sua formação é: demonstrative pronoun + verb.
- This is a blue pen. (essa é uma caneta azul)
- These are blue pens. (essas são umas canetas azuis)
- That is my pen. (esta é minha caneta)
- Did you like that? (você gosta disso?)
- Those are my pens. (essas são minhas canetas)
Demonstrative Adjectives (pronomes adjetivos): tem a função de atribuir qualidade ao substantivo, descrevendo-o. Ele surge antes do nome e sua formação é: demonstrative adjective + noun.
- This pen is blue. (essa caneta é azul)
- These pens are blue. (essas canetas são azuis)
- That pen is mine (esta caneta é minha)
- Those pens are mine (estas canetas são minhas)
Work after eight months of pregnancy is as harmful as smoking, study finds
Conal Urquhart and agencies
July 28, 2012
Working after eight months of pregnancy is as harmful for babies as smoking, according to a new study. Women who worked after they were eight months pregnant had babies on average around 230g lighter than those who stopped work between six and eight months.
The University of Essex research – which drew on data from three major studies, two in the UK and one in the US – found the effect of continuing to work during the late stages of pregnancy was equal to that of smoking while pregnant. Babies whose mothers worked or smoked throughout pregnancy grew more slowly in the womb.
Past research has shown babies with low birth weights are at higher risk of poor health and slow development, and may suffer from a variety of problems later in life. Stopping work early in pregnancy was particularly beneficial for women with lower levels of education, the study found – suggesting that the effect of working during pregnancy was possibly more marked for those doing physically demanding work. The birth weight of babies born to mothers under the age of 24 was not affected by them continuing to work, but in older mothers the effect was more significant.
The researchers identified 1,339 children whose mothers were part of the British Household Panel Survey, which was conducted between 1991 and 2005, and for whom data was available. A further sample of 17,483 women who gave birth in 2000 or 2001 and who took part in the Millennium Cohort Study was also examined and showed similar results, along with 12,166 from the National Survey of Family Growth, relating to births in the US between the early 1970s and 1995.
One of the authors of the study, Prof. Marco Francesconi, said the government should consider incentives 42 employers to offer more flexible maternity leave to women who might need a break before, 43 after, their babies were born. He said: “We know low birth weight is a predictor of many things that happen later, including lower chances of completing school successfully, lower wages and higher mortality. We need to think seriously about parental leave, because – as this study suggests – the possible benefits of taking leave flexibly before the birth 44 quite high.”
The study also suggests British women may be working for 45 now during pregnancy. While 16% of mothers questioned by the British Household Panel Study, which went as far back as 1991, worked up to one month before the birth, the figure was 30% in the Millennium Cohort Study, whose subjects were born in 2000 and 2001.
In the excerpt from the first paragraph – than those who stopped work between six and eight months –, the word those refers to:
Alternativa d: women.
WHO estimates of the causes of death in children
Jennifer Bryce, Cynthia Boschi-Pinto, Kenji Shibuya and Robert E Black
Child survival efforts can be effective only if they are based on accurate information about causes of deaths. Here, we report on a 4-year effort by WHO to improve the accuracy of this information.
WHO established the external Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) in 2001 to develop estimates of the proportion of deaths in children younger than age 5 years attributable to pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria, measles, and the major causes of death in the first 28 days of life. Various methods, including single-cause and multi-cause proportionate mortality models, were used. The role of undernutrition as an underlying cause of death was estimated in collaboration with CHERG.
In 2000–03, six causes accounted for 73% of the 10.6 million yearly deaths in children younger than age 5 years: pneumonia (19%), diarrhoea (18%), malaria (8%), neonatal pneumonia or sepsis (10%), preterm delivery (10%), and asphyxia at birth (8%). The four communicable disease categories account for more than half (54%) of all child deaths. The greatest communicable disease killers are similar in all WHO regions with the exception of malaria; 94% of global deaths attributable to this disease occur in the Africa region. Undernutrition is an underlying cause of 53% of all deaths in children younger than age 5 years.
INTERPRETATION Achievement of the millennium development goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds from the 1990 rate will depend on renewed efforts to prevent and control pneumonia, diarrhoea, and undernutrition in all WHO regions, and malaria in the Africa region. In all regions, deaths in the neonatal period, primarily due to preterm delivery, sepsis or pneumonia, and birth asphyxia should also be addressed. These estimates of the causes of child deaths should be used to guide public-health policies and programmes.
In the last sentence of the text “These estimates of the causes of child deaths should be used to guide public-health policies and programmes.”, the word “these” refers to
a) estimates about deaths in children younger than 5 years in Africa.
b) estimates developed by CHERG, a group established by WHO.
c) data obtained by CHERG about the first 28 days of life.
d) correlations about public investment and effective health policies.
e) global data about diseases that affect poor people in underdeveloped countries.
Alternativa b: estimates developed by CHERG, a group established by WHO.
Leia também: Pronomes em Inglês.