Passive Voice

Daniela Diana

A passive voice (voz passiva) é um tipo de construção frasal onde é salientado o que acontece com o sujeito, no entanto, sem enfatizá-lo. Nesse caso, o sujeito é paciente.

Ela mantém o foco no objeto do período, uma vez que ele recebe a ação. A passive voice é geralmente utilizada em textos formais e técnicos.

Regras e Exemplos

A voz passiva pode ser utilizada em frases afirmativas, negativas e interrogativas. Sua formação é expressa por:

Objeto + verbo to be + particípio passado do verbo principal + complemento

Usamos esse tipo de construção quando o sujeito da frase é indeterminado.

Ela pode ser utilizada em diversos tempos verbais do presente, do passado e do futuro. Confira abaixo alguns exemplos:

Presente (Present)

Simple Present: am/is/are + particípio

  • Affirmative Form: The school is painted by John.
  • Negative Form: The school isn’t painted by John.
  • Interrogative Form: Is the school painted by Jonh?

Present Continuous: am/is/are being + particípio

  • Affirmative Form: The school is being painted by John.
  • Negative Form: The school isn’t being painted by John.
  • Interrogative Form: Is the school being painted by John?

Present Perfect: has/have been + particípio

  • Affirmative Form: The school has been painted by John.
  • Negative Form: The school hasn’t been painted by John.
  • Interrogative Form: Has the school been painted by John?

Passado (Past)

Simple Past: was/were + particípio

  • Affirmative Form: The school was painted by John.
  • Negative Form: The school wasn’t painted by John.
  • Interrogative Form: Was the school painted by John?

Past Continuous: was/were being + particípio

  • Affirmative Form: The school was being painted by John.
  • Negative Form: The school wasn’t being painted by John.
  • Interrogative Form: Was the school being painted by John?

Past Perfect: had been + particípio

  • Affirmative Form: The school had been painted by John.
  • Negative Form: The school hadn’t been painted by John.
  • Interrogative Form: Had the school been painted by John?

Futuro (Future)

Simple Future: will be + particípio

  • Affirmative Form: The school will be painted by John.
  • Negative Form: The school won’t be painted by John.
  • Interrogative Form: Will the school be painted by John?

Future Perfect: will have been + particípio

  • Affirmative Form: By next week, the school will have been painted by John.
  • Negative Form: By next week, the school won’t have been painted by John.
  • Interrogative Form: Will the school have been painted by next week by John?

Modal Verbs (Verbos Modais)

No caso do uso dos verbos modais, a construção é feita da seguinte maneira:

Modal verb + be + particípio passado

Os principais verbos modais são: will, would, can, could, must, should, may, might, ought to, have to, etc.

Active Voice x Passive Voice

Diferente da passive voice, na active voice (voz ativa) o sujeito da ação é posto em evidência. Confira abaixo alguns exemplos:

ExemplosActive Voice (Voz Ativa)Passive Voice (Voz Passiva)
Simple PresentJohn paints the school every year.The school is painted by John every year.
Simple PastJohn painted the school.The school was painted by Paul.
Simple FutureJohn will paint the school.The school will be painted by Paul.

Exercises (Exercícios)

1. (PUC- Rio) The passive voice is used in “Orkut was quietly launched on January 22, 2004”. Find the sentence that is also in the passive voice.

a) Communities have never rejected new members.
b) Good ideas took shape at the end of the session.
c) Some communities have been able to control their growth.
d) Several social groups could be connected by the Internet.
e) Young students are never tired of chatting with friends on email.

Alternativa d: Several social groups could be connected by the Internet.

2. (UNESP) Sue asked Barbara: “What movie do you want to see?”
Sue asked her what movie ______________

a) did she want to see.
b) does she want to see.
c) to see.
d) she wanted to see.
e) she want to see.

Alternativa d: she wanted to see.

3. (FATEC) She said: “I had to leave”. – She said (that) ______.

a) she is leaving
b) she had leaving
c) she had to leaves
d) she had to leave
e) she had to leaving

Alternativa d: she had to leave

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Daniela Diana
Daniela Diana
Licenciada em Letras pela Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp) em 2008 e Bacharelada em Produção Cultural pela Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) em 2014. Amante das letras, artes e culturas, desde 2012 trabalha com produção e gestão de conteúdos on-line.