Present Perfect (exercícios com gabarito comentado)

Carla Muniz

O Present Perfect é um tempo verbal da língua inglesa que pode ser usado para indicar ações que começaram no passado e se prolongaram até o presente, ou foram concluídas recentemente.

Não existe nenhum equivalente ao Present Perfect na língua portuguesa.

O Toda Matéria selecionou uma série de exercícios para ajudar você a compreender como e quando usar esse tempo verbal.

Mãos à obra!

inglês

Questões comentadas

1. (DPE-SP/2015)

What Causes a Super Blood Moon?

By Daniel Victor, Sept, 25, 2015.

A rare astronomical phenomenon Sunday night will produce a moon that will appear slightly bigger..... I ..... usual and have a reddish hue, an event known as a super blood moon.

It’s a combination of curiosities that hasn’t ..... II ..... since 1982, and won’t happen again ..... III ..... 2033. A so-called supermoon, which occurs when the moon is closest to earth in its orbit, will coincide with a lunar eclipse, leaving the moon in Earth’s shadow. Individually, the two phenomena are not uncommon, but they do not align often.

Most people are unlikely to detect the larger size of the supermoon. It may appear 14 percent larger and 30 percent brighter, but the difference is subtle to the plain eye. But the reddish tint from the lunar eclipse is likely to be visible throughout much of North America, especially on the East Coast.

“You’re basically seeing all of the sunrises and sunsets across the world, all at once, being reflected off the surface of the moon,” said Dr. Sarah Noble, a program scientist at NASA.

(Adapatado de: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/26/science/super-blood-moon-to-make-last-appearance-until2033.html)

A alternativa que preenche corretamente a lacuna II é

a) happen
b) happening
c) will happen
d) happened
e) happens

Alternativa certa: d) happened

Uma frase no Present Perfect segue a seguinte estrutura: verbo to have conjugado no Simple Present (has/have) + verbo principal conjugado no Past Participle.

a) ERRADA. Happen é o verbo to happen (acontecer) no infinitivo, sem o to. O Past Participle de to happen é happened.

b) ERRADA. Happening é o verbo to happen (acontecer) conjugado no Present Continuous. O Past Participle de to happen é happened.

c) ERRADA. Will happen é o verbo to happen (acontecer) conjugado no Simple Future. O Past Participle de to happen é happened.

d) CORRETA. A estrutura formada pelo uso da alternativa d) faz com que o verbo da frase esteja flexionado corretamente no Present Perfect: has happened.

e) ERRADA. Happens é o verbo to happen (acontecer) conjugado na terceira pessoa do singular do Simple Present. O Past Participle de to happen é happened.

2. (Ibmec-RJ/2011)

Global Thinking in the 21st Century

At the end of the 20th century, the world changed in important ways. Until recently nations acted independently. Each did its business and tried to solve its problems alone. But now, the economy is worldwide and communications technologies have connected people all over the globe. Many problems are global too, and can no longer be solved by individual nations.

Environmental destruction is one of these problems. As the world’s population has grown and technology has developed, the environment has suffered. Some nations have begun to try to stop the pollution and the environmental destruction. But the environment is global – the atmosphere, the oceans, and many forms of life are all connected. Thus, the solutions require global thinking.

The problem of ocean pollution is a good example. Since all the oceans of the world are connected. Pollution does not stay where it begins. It spreads out from every river and every harbor and affects bodies of water everywhere.

For centuries, people have used the oceans as a dumping place. Many cities take tons of garbage out to sea and dump it there. Five million plastic containers are thrown into the world’s oceans every day! Aside from plastics, many other dangerous substances are dumped in oceans.

Some people believe that oceans are so large that chemicals and waste will disappear. However, many things, such as chemicals and plastics, stay in the water and create problems.

Another global pollution problem concerns the atmosphere. Until recently, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were used around the world in manufacturing refrigerators. Scientists discovered that these CFCs were destroying the ozone layer in the atmosphere and this layer helps protect the earth from the sun’s rays. Without this layer, most forms of life on earth – including humans – probable would not be able to live.

CFCs will soon be completely banned in the United States and in most developed countries while many other countries still use CFCs in manufacturing. Among these are some of the most populous on earth, such as India and China, which need to change their refrigerator factories to non-CPC processes. But they may not be able to make this change alone and will need help from the industrialized countries. This is what global thinking means – working together for solutions.

Some examples of the use of the present perfect were extracted from the text (…communications technologies have connected people all over the globe,… the environment has suffered, Some nations have begun to try…, … people have used the oceans as a dumping place). This verb tense was used because:

a) the development process is happening at the time of speech
b) the development process is in the past
c) the development process is widespread
d) the development process is happening within a limited time span
e) the development process is on-going

Alternativa correta: e) the development process is on-going

O Present Perfect é utilizado para indicar ações que começaram no passado e se prolongaram até o presente, ou que foram concluídas recentemente.

a) ERRADA. A alternativa a) afirma que o Present Perfect foi utilizado pois “o processo de desenvolvimento está acontecendo no momento da fala”. O tempo verbal que indica uma ação que acontece no momento da fala é o Present Continuous.

b) ERRADA. A alternativa b) afirma que o Present Perfect foi utilizado pois “o processo de desenvolvimento está no passado”.

c) ERRADA. A alternativa c) afirma que o Present Perfect foi utilizado pois “o processo de desenvolvimento é abrangente”. Essa afirmação não tem qualquer relação com o uso do tempo verbal.

d) ERRADA. A alternativa d) afirma que o Present Perfect foi utilizado pois “o processo de desenvolvimento está acontecendo em um intervalo de tempo limitado".

Essa afirmação não tem qualquer relação com o uso do tempo verbal.

e) CORRETA. A alternativa e) está correta, pois afirma que o Present Perfect foi utilizado pois “o processo de desenvolvimento está em curso”, ou seja, começou no passado e se prolongou até o presente.

3. (Fatec-SP/2008)

Just Like Humans

Animal personality is now taken seriously.

We name them, raise them, clothe them and spoil them. We describe them as manipulative, grumpy, sensitive and caring.

And they’re not even human – they’re our pets. It’s in our nature to ascribe human characteristics to animals even if they don’t really exist. For this reason, in the interests of remaining objective observers of nature, scientists have taken pains to avoid anthropomorphizing animals. To talk about a dog’s having a swagger or a cat’s being shy would invite professional sneers.

In recent years, however, evidence has begun to show that animals have personalities after all. Chimps, for example, can be conscientious: they think before they act, they plan and they control their impulses, says Samuel Gosling, a Texas-based psychologist. Research has identified similar personality traits in many other species.

The implications of these findings for research on human personality are powerful.

Scientists can look to animal studies for insight into humans the same way they now look to animal testing for insight into drugs.

Animal research has already begun to shed light on how different sights [sic] of people respond to medications and treatments – aggressive and passive rats respond differently to antidepressants, for example.

The hope is that animals can help illuminate the murky interplay of genes and the environment on people’s personalities. The research may even lead to predictions about what people will do, based on their personalities, when they’re stressed out or frightened. Putting personality testing – already a thriving business – on a firm footing could uncover a wealth of knowledge about where personality comes from.

(Newsweek, June 18, 2007)

Assinale a alternativa que contém o uso correto do tempo verbal “present perfect”, como no exemplo – “evidence has begun to show that animals have personalities after all” –, no segundo parágrafo do texto.

a) Her grandfather has won the lottery.
b) When America was discovered, Indians have lived in the land for a long time.
c) The president has arrived from Europe the previous night.
d) They have finished their assignment before the end of class.
e) Brazil has won the world cup in 2002.

Alternativa correta: a) Her grandfather has won the lottery.

a) CORRETA. O Present Perfect é utilizado para indicar ações que começaram no passado e se prolongaram até o presente, ou que foram concluídas recentemente.

Com o uso do Present Perfect na frase Her grandfather has won the lottery. (O avô dela ganhou na loteria.), é possível interpretarmos o conteúdo como uma ação que foi concluída recentemente.

b) ERRADA. Na frase When America was discovered, Indians have lived in the land for a long time. (Quando a América foi descoberta, os índios tinham vivido no território por muito tempo.), fica clara a existência de duas ações no passado, onde uma (os índios terem vivido na América) aconteceu primeiro que a outra (o descobrimento da América).

Quando duas ações ocorrem no passado, a primeira a acontecer deve estar no Past Perfect e a ação seguinte deve estar no Simple Past.

Na alternativa b), a segunda ação está corretamente conjugada no Simple Past (was discovered), mas a primeira está flexionada no Present Perfect (have lived) e deveria estar no Past Perfect (had lived).

c) ERRADA. Na frase The president has arrived from Europe the previous night. (O presidente chegou da Europa na noite anterior.), temos um tempo passado específico referido na frase: the previous night (na noite anterior).

Quando isso ocorre, o tempo verbal correto a ser utilizado é o Simple Past.

Para que o Present Perfect seja utilizado, não se deve mencionar um tempo específico.

d) ERRADA. Na frase They have finished their assignment before the end of class. (Eles terminaram a tarefa deles antes do fim da aula), temos um tempo passado específico referido na frase: before the end of class (antes do fim da aula).

Quando isso ocorre, o tempo verbal correto a ser utilizado é o Simple Past.

Para que o Present Perfect seja utilizado, não se deve mencionar um tempo específico.

e) ERRADA. Na frase Brazil has won the world cup in 2002. (O Brasil venceu a Copa do mundo em 2002.), temos um tempo passado específico referido na frase: in 2002 (em 2002).

Quando isso ocorre, o tempo verbal correto a ser utilizado é o Simple Past.

Para que o Present Perfect seja utilizado, não se deve mencionar um tempo específico.

4. One of the purposes of my trip across my native country was to listen – to hear speech1, accent rhythms, overtones and emphasis. For speech is so much more than words and sentences. I did listen everywhere. It seemed to me that regional speech is in the process of disappearing; not gone, but going. Decades of radio and television must have this impact. Communications must destroy8 localness, by a slow, inevitable process. I can remember a time when I could almost pinpoint a man’s place of origin by his speech. That is growing more difficult now and will in some foreseeable future become impossible. It is a rare house or building that is not rigged with the spiky combers of the air. Radio and television speech becomes standardized, perhaps better English than we have ever used. Just as our bread, mixed and baked, packaged and sold without benefit of accident or human frailty, is uniformly good and uniformly tasteless, so will our speech become one speech18.

I who love words and the endless possibility of words am saddened by this inevitability3. For with local accent will disappear local tempo. The idioms, the figures of speech that make language rich and full of the poetry of place and time must go. And in their place will be a national speech17, wrapped and packaged, standard and tasteless. In the many years since I have listened14 to the land, the change is very great. Travelling west allong the northern routes, I did not hear truly local speech until I reached Montana. That is one of the reasons I fell in love again with Montana5. The West Coast went back to package English. The Southwest kept7 a grasp, but a slipping grasp on localness. Of course the deep south holds on to its regional expressions, just as it holds and treasures some other anachronisms, but no region can hold out for long against the highway, the high-tension line and the national television. What I am mourning9 is perhaps not worth saving, but I regret its loss nevertheless6.

Even while I protest the assembly-line production of our food, our songs, our language, and eventually our souls, I know that it was15 a rare home that baked good bread in the old days. Mother’s cooking11 was with rare exceptions poor, that good unpasteurized milk touched only by flies and bits of manure crawling with bacteria, the healthy old time life was riddled with aches12 and sudden death from unknown13 causes and that sweet local speech I mourn was the child of illiteracy and ignorance. It is the nature of man as he grows10 older, a small bridge in time2, to protest against change, particularly change for the better. But it is true that we have exchanged corpulence for starvation, and either one will kill16 us. We, or at least I, can have no conception of human life in a hundred years or fifty years. Perhaps my greatest wisdom is the knowledge that I do not know. The sad ones are those who waste their energy4 in trying to hold it back, for they can only feel bitternes in loss and no joy in gain.

(STEINBECK, John. Travels with Charley. New York: Book of the Month Club, 1962.)

The present perfect form of “That is one of the reasons I fell in love again with Montana” (ref.5) is:

a) that is one of the reasons I have falled in love again with Montana
b) that is one of the reasons I have fallen in love again with Montana
c) that is one of the reasons I had fallen in love again with Montana
d) that is one of the reasons I have felt in love again with Montana

Alternativa correta: b) that is one of the reasons I have fallen in love again with Montana

a) ERRADA. Na frase That is one of the reasons I fell in love again with Montana. (Essa é uma das razões pela qual me apaixonei por Montana novamente.), a expressão fall in love significa “apaixonar-se”.

Para escrevê-la no Present Perfect, é preciso seguir a estrutura desse tempo verbal: verbo to have conjugado no Simple Present + verbo principal conjugado no Past Participle.

A flexão do verbo to have no Simple Present está correta: have. No entanto, a palavra falled não existe em inglês e, por isso, a frase está errada.

O Past Participle do verbo to fall é fallen.

b) CORRETA. Na frase That is one of the reasons I fell in love again with Montana. (Essa é uma das razões pela qual me apaixonei por Montana novamente.), a expressão fall in love significa “apaixonar-se”.

Para seguirmos a estrutura do Present Perfect, devemos usar: verbo to have conjugado no Simple Present + verbo principal conjugado no Past Participle.

O verbo to have possui duas flexões: has (usado com he, she e it) e have (usado com I, you, we e they). Como o sujeito da frase é I, a flexão a ser utilizada é have. O Past Participle do verbo to fall é fallen.

Assim, a frase no Present Perfect é: That is one of the reasons I have fallen in love again with Montana.

c) ERRADA. A frase da alternativa c) está gramaticalmente correta. No entanto, o tempo verbal nela utilizado é o Past Perfect.

A estrutura de formação do Past Perfect é: verbo to have conjugado no Simple Past (had) + verbo principal conjugado no Past Participle.

Para seguirmos a estrutura do Present Perfect, devemos usar: verbo to have conjugado no Simple Present + verbo principal conjugado no Past Participle.

d) ERRADA. Na frase That is one of the reasons I fell in love again with Montana. (Essa é uma das razões pela qual me apaixonei por Montana novamente.), a expressão fall in love significa “apaixonar-se”.

Para escrevê-la no Present Perfect, é preciso seguir a estrutura desse tempo verbal: verbo to have conjugado no Simple Present + verbo principal conjugado no Past Participle.

A flexão do verbo to have no Simple Present está correta: have.

No entanto, a palavra felt é a forma de Past Participle do verbo to feel (sentir) e não do verbo to fall. O Past Participle do verbo to fall é fallen.

5. (CESPE/2015)

They are in there, often unnoticed. The words that have become part of everyday English: Nirvana, pyjamas, shampoo and shawl; bungalow, jungle, and loot.

One landmark book records the etymology of colloquial Anglo-Indian words and phrases. Compiled by two India enthusiasts, Henry Yule and Arthur C Burnell, ‘Hobson-Jobson: The Definitive Glossary of British India’ was published in 1886.

The editor of its contemporary edition — which has just been published in paperback — explains how many of the words pre-date British rule. “Ginger, pepper and indigo entered English via ancient routes: they reflect the early Greek and Roman trade with India and come through Greek and Latin into English,” says Kate Teltscher.

India’s influence on English points towards how language is perpetually in motion, and highlights the importance of former colonies in the making of the modern world. “It’s so fascinating to look at words,” says Teltscher. “It opens up these unexpected rhythms and paths of travel, and extraordinary, unlikely connections.”

Based on the text How India changed English, judge the following items.

In the excerpt “'Hobson-Jobson: The Definitive Glossary of British India' was published in 1886" (l. 7 and 8), “was published" can be correctly replaced by has been published.

a) certo
b) errado

Alternativa correta: b) errado

Na frase 'Hobson-Jobson: The Definitive Glossary of British India' was published in 1886. (“Hobson-Jobson: o glossário definitico da Índia britânica” foi publicado em 1886), não podemos substituir was published por has been published.

Has been published é uma flexão do Present Perfect e, por isso, não pode ser usada junto com uma referência específica de tempo (em 1886).

A resposta correta é a alternativa b), que afirma que tal substituição é ERRADA.

6. (IESES/2014)

Complete the sentence (use the present perfect):

Where’s the book I gave you? What _____________ with it?

a) are you doing
b) had you do
c) have you done
d) have you been doing

Alternativa correta: c) have you done

A estrutura de formação do Present Perfect é: verbo to have no Simple Present + verbo principal no Past Participle.

a) ERRADA. A alternativa a) é uma estrutura gramaticalmente correta, mas apresenta uma flexão de Present Continuous (verbo to be + verbo terminado em -ing), e não de Present Perfect.

b) ERRADA. A alternativa b) está gramaticalmente incorreta. Uma pergunta iniciada com had (Simple Past de to have) precisa de um verbo principal flexionado no Past Participle.

c) CORRETA. A alternativa c) segue a estrutura de formação do Present Perfect: verbo to have no Simple Present (have) + verbo principal no Past Participle (done).

d) ERRADA. A alternativa a) é uma estrutura gramaticalmente correta, mas apresenta uma flexão de Present Perfect Continuous (verbo "to have" + Past Participle + verbo terminado em -ing), e não de Present Perfect.

7. (CETRO/2015)

What causes hunger?

The world produces enough to feed the entire global population of 7 billion people. And yet, one person in eight on the planet goes to bed hungry each night. In some countries, one child in three is underweight. Why does hunger exist? There are many reasons for the presence of hunger in the world and they are often interconnected. Here are six that we think are important.

Poverty trap

People living in poverty cannot afford nutritious food for themselves and their families. This makes them weaker and less able to earn the money that would help them escape poverty and hunger. This is not just a day-to-day problem: when children are chronically malnourished, or ‘stunted’, it can affect their future income, condemning them to a life of poverty and hunger. In developing countries, farmers often cannot afford seeds, so they cannot plant the crops that would provide for their families. They may have to cultivate crops without the tools and fertilizers they need. Others have no land or water or education. In short, the poor are hungry and their hunger traps them in poverty.

Lack of investment in agriculture

Too many developing countries lack key agricultural infrastructure, such as enough roads, warehouses and irrigation. The results are high transport costs, lack of storage facilities and unreliable water supplies. All conspire to limit agricultural yields and access to food. Investments in improving land management, using water more efficiently and making more resistant seed types available can bring big improvements. Research by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization shows that investment in agriculture is five times more effective in reducing poverty and hunger than investment in any other sector.

Climate and weather

Natural disasters such as floods, tropical storms and long periods of drought are on the increase – with calamitous consequences for the hungry poor in developing countries. Drought is one of the most common causes of food shortages in the world. In 2011, recurrent drought caused crop failures and heavy livestock losses in parts of Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya. In 2012 there was a similar situation in the Sahel region of West Africa. In many countries, climate change is exacerbating already adverse natural conditions. Increasingly, the world’s fertile farmland is under threat from erosion, salination and desertification. Deforestation by human hands accelerates the erosion of land which could be used for growing food.

War and displacement

Across the globe, conflicts consistently disrupt farming and food production. Fighting also forces millions of people to flee their homes, leading to hunger emergencies as the displaced find themselves without the means to feed themselves. The conflict in Syria is a recent example. In war, food sometimes becomes a weapon. Soldiers will starve opponents into submission by seizing or destroying food and livestock and systematically wrecking local markets. Fields are often mined and water wells contaminated, forcing farmers to abandon their land. Ongoing conflict in Somalia and the has contributed significantly to the level of hunger in the two countries. By comparison, hunger is on the retreat in more peaceful parts of Africa such as Ghana and Rwanda.

Unstable markets

In recent years, the price of food products has been very unstable. Roller-coaster food prices make it difficult for the poorest people to access nutritious food consistently. The poor need access to adequate food all year round. Price spikes may temporarily put food out of reach, which can have lasting consequences for small children. When prices rise, consumers often shift to cheaper, less-nutritious foods, heightening the risks of micronutrient deficiencies and other forms of malnutrition.

Food wastage

One third of all food produced (1.3 billion tons) is never consumed. This food wastage represents a missed opportunity to improve global food security in a world where one in 8 is hungry. Producing this food also uses up precious natural resources that we need to feed the planet. Each year, food that is produced but not eaten guzzles up a volume of water equivalent to the annual flow of Russia’s Volga River. Producing this food also adds 3.3 billion tons of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, with consequences for the climate and, ultimately, for food production.

Choose the alternative that presents a possible correct interrogative form of the sentence below.

“In recent years, the price of food products has been very unstable.”

a) Does the price of food products has been very unstable in recent years?
b) Is the price of food products has been very unstable in recent years?
c) In recent years, did the price of food products has been very unstable?
d) In recent years, has the price of food products been very unstable?
e) Have the price of food, in recent years, been very unstable?

Alternativa correta: d) In recent years, has the price of food products been very unstable?

a) ERRADA. A alternativa a) não apresenta uma forma de interrogativa correta para a frase In recent years, the price of food products has been very unstable. (Nos últimos anos, o preço de produtos alimentícios tem estado muito instável.)

A forma verbal da frase na afirmativa (has been) está flexionada no Present Perfect.

Para fazer frases interrogativas no Present Perfect, devemos usar o verbo to have (has) como auxiliar e não o verbo to do flexionado no presente (do/does).

Do e does são os auxiliares utilizados para fazer perguntas flexionadas no Simple Present, e não são acompanhados por outro verbo auxiliar, mas sim por um verbo principal.

A letra a) consiste em uma frase gramaticalmente incorreta.

Outro indício de incorreção é o uso de um auxiliar de tempo verbal presente (does) com uma referência ao passado (in recent years).

Assim sendo, a pergunta corretamente elaborada deve usar o verbo to have no Simple Present (has) + sujeito (the price of food products) + Past Participle do verbo principal (been): ... has the price of food products been...

b) ERRADA. A alternativa b) não apresenta uma forma de interrogativa correta para a frase In recent years, the price of food products has been very unstable. (Nos últimos anos, o preço de produtos alimentícios tem estado muito instável.)

A forma verbal da frase na afirmativa (has been) está flexionada no Present Perfect.

Para fazer frases interrogativas no Present Perfect, devemos usar o verbo to have (has/have) como auxiliar, e não o verbo to be (am/is/are).

Is, am e are são os auxiliares utilizados para fazer perguntas flexionadas no Present Continuous, e não são acompanhados por outro verbo auxiliar, mas sim por um verbo principal flexionado no gerúndio (-ing).

A letra b) consiste em uma frase gramaticalmente incorreta.

Assim sendo, a pergunta corretamente elaborada deve usar o verbo to have no Simple Present (has) + sujeito (the price of food products) + Past Participle do verbo principal (been): ... has the price of food products been...

c) ERRADA. A alternativa c) não apresenta uma forma de interrogativa correta para a frase In recent years, the price of food products has been very unstable. (Nos últimos anos, o preço de produtos alimentícios tem estado muito instável.)

O forma verbal da frase na afirmativa (has been) está flexionada no Present Perfect.

Para fazer frases interrogativas no Present Perfect, devemos usar o verbo to have (has/have) como auxiliar e não o verbo to do no passado (did).

Did é o auxiliar utilizado para fazer perguntas flexionadas no Simple Past, e não é acompanhado por outro verbo auxiliar, mas sim por um verbo principal no infinitivo sem o to.

A letra c) consiste em uma frase gramaticalmente incorreta.

Assim sendo, a pergunta corretamente elaborada deve usar o verbo to have no Simple Present (has) + sujeito (the price of food products) + Past Participle do verbo principal (been): ... has the price of food products been...

d) CORRETA. A alternativa d) apresenta a forma de interrogativa correta para a frase In recent years, the price of food products has been very unstable. (Nos últimos anos, o preço de produtos alimentícios tem estado muito instável.)

O forma verbal da frase na afirmativa (has been) está flexionada no Present Perfect.

Para fazer frases interrogativas no Present Perfect, devemos usar o verbo to have no Simple Present (has) + sujeito (the price of food products) + Past Participle do verbo principal (been): ... has the price of food products been...

e) ERRADA. A alternativa e) não apresenta uma forma de interrogativa correta para a frase In recent years, the price of food products has been very unstable. (Nos últimos anos, o preço de produtos alimentícios tem estado muito instável.)

O forma verbal da frase na afirmativa (has been) está flexionada no Present Perfect.

A frase apresenta uma estrutura correta de formação do Present Perfect: verbo to have no Simple Present (has) + sujeito (the price of food) + Past Participle do verbo principal (been). No entanto, a forma correta do verbo to have a ser utilizada nessa frase é has.

Has é usado com a terceira pessoa do singular (he,she e it). Como o sujeito da frase na afirmativa é the price of food products (o preço de produtos alimentícios), ele corresponde ao pronome it (usado para coisas, objetos e animais, dentre outros.)

Assim, ao usar a forma verbal have, a alternativa e) apresenta uma frase gramaticalmente incorreta.

Além disso, observe que o sujeito está incompleto (the price of food em vez de the price of food products).

Não deixe de consultar essa seleção de conteúdos que preparamos para ajudar você a aprimorar os seus conhecimentos sobre a língua inglesa.

Carla Muniz
Carla Muniz
Professora, lexicógrafa, tradutora, produtora de conteúdos e revisora. Licenciada em Letras (Português, Inglês e Literaturas) pelas Faculdades Integradas Simonsen, em 2002.