Third Conditional

Daniela Diana

A third conditional são sentenças condicionais usadas para falar do passado. Ela faz referência a algo que não ocorreu no passado e, portanto, pode expressar arrependimento.

Todas as orações condicionais em inglês (if clauses) são acompanhadas pelo termo if (se).

Exemplo: If we had saved some money, we would have bought a new phone. (Se nós tivéssemos economizado dinheiro, nós teríamos comprado um telefone novo)

Formação

A third conditional é formada pela if clause e a main clause. A if clause é composta por verbos no past perfect, já a main clause envolve diversos verbos sendo que os mais utilizados são: would have, could have e might have.

Após a main clause, os verbos que surgem aparecem no past participle.

if + past perfect + would have, could have, might have + past participle

Exemplos:

If he had come on Monday, I would have seen him. (Se ele tivesse vindo na segunda, o teria visto)
If she had worked more, she could have saved more money. (Se ela tivesse trabalhando mais, poderia ter economizado mais dinheiro)
If we had studied harder, we might have passed the test. (Se nós tivéssemos estudado mais duro, poderíamos ter passado na prova)

Obs: Nas sentenças negativas, os verbos modais podem aparecer com as contrações:

Would: would not – wouldn’t
Could: could not – couldn’t
Might: might not – mightn’t

Importante destacar que a main clause pode surgir antes da if clause, por exemplo:

I would’ve called him if I’d known him telephone number. (Eu teria ligado pra ele se eu soubesse o número de telefone dele)

Note que a contração do would com o have é: would’ve.

First, Second and Third conditional

Além da third conditional, há também a first e a second conditionals em inglês. As três são formadas por uma if clause e uma main clause. As diferenças entre elas residem na formação e também no propósito de cada uma.

Assim, na first conditional, os verbos surgem no presente e no futuro indicando possibilidades futuras. Sua formação é: If + simple present + simple future + infinitivo.

Exemplo: If it rains tomorrow, I’ll stay at home. (Se chover amanhã, eu vou ficar em casa)

Já na second conditional, os verbos surgem no passado. Essas são usadas para falar de ações improváveis ou irreais de acontecerem no presente. Sua formação é: If+ simple past + would, could, might, should + infinitive.

Exemplo: If I won the lottery, I would buy a new car. (Se eu ganhasse na loteria, eu compraria um carro novo)

Por fim, a third conditional expressa algo que não aconteceu anteriormente e, portanto, utiliza verbos no passado. Ou seja, ela sugere situações hipotéticas que não ocorreram no passado.

Sua formação é: if + past perfect + would have, could have, might have + past participle.

Exemplo: They would have found the key if they had looked for it. (Eles teriam encontrado a chave se a tivessem procurado.)

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Exercises

1. (ESPM-2011) Turning the third frame of the strip into the third conditional, we would have:

Charge

a) “And if anything had been, by Golly, I would have been ready for it!”
b) “And if anything happened, by Golly, I’d be ready for it!”
c) “And if anything did, by Golly, I would be ready for it!”
d) “And if anything had happened, by Golly, I’d be ready for it!”
e) “And had anything happened, by Golly, I’d have been ready for it!”

Alternativa e: “And had anything happened, by Golly, I’d have been ready for it!”

2. (ESPM-2012) The underlined sentence ‘If you knew what was going on above your head, you probably wouldn’t sleep at night,’ in the third conditional would be:

a) Had you known what was going on above your head, you probably wouldn’t have slept at night.
b) If you hadn’t known what was going on above your head, you probably wouldn’t sleep at night.
c) If you had known what was going on above your head, you probably would have slept at night.
d) Unless you hadn’t known what was going on above your head, you probably would sleep at night.
e) Unless you had known knew what was going on above your head, you probably wouldn’t have slept at night.

Alternativa d: Unless you hadn’t known what was going on above your head, you probably would sleep at night.

Daniela Diana
Daniela Diana
Licenciada em Letras pela Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp) em 2008 e Bacharelada em Produção Cultural pela Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) em 2014. Amante das letras, artes e culturas, desde 2012 trabalha com produção e gestão de conteúdos on-line.